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2011-03-21

freeman_1992_journal

CITATION: Freeman, Linton C. 1992. "The Sociological Concept of “Group”: An Empirical Test of Two Models." The American Journal of Sociology 98(1): 152-166.

AUTHOR_1: Linton C. Freeman
YEAR: 1992
TITLEThe Sociological Concept of “Group”: An Empirical Test of Two Models
SOURCE: Journal
SOURCE_TITLE: American Journal of Sociology

SUMMARY: Compares two models of small group structure proposed in the literature – one by Granovetter and the other by Winship. The Winship (1977) model is based upon a hierarchical structure, which has as its implication the prediction that intransitive triples don not exist in strongly-tied small groups. The Granovetter (1973) model, based upon his distinction between strong and weak ties, predicts instead that there will be no “G-intransitive” triples in strongly-tied small groups. A G-intransitive triple is one in which there are two strongly-tied pairs and one pair with no ties at all. Freeman presents a straightforward method for empirically identifying the cutoff-point between strong and weak ties in a Granovetter model, and demonstrates this process using seven well-known datasets with detailed information on long-term interaction. The results suggest that the Winship model is too inflexible and a poor fit to actual data, whereas the Granovetter model fits 4 out of the 7 datasets. A discussion follows of what substantive characteristics might lead a group to display patterns of interaction that conform to the Granovetter model.

REVIEWED BY: jrh
LABELS_FULL: 1992, jrh, reviewed, journal, strong ties, weak ties, social structure, transitivity, small groups, Old South data, Lunch data, Beach data, Karate Club data, Frat data, Tech data, Office data

2011-03-16

handcock_et_al_2008_journal

CITATION: Handcock, Mark, S., David R. Hunter, Carter T. Butts, Steven M. Goodreau, and Martina Morris. 2008. "statnet: Software Tools for the Representation, Visualization, Analysis, and Simulation of Network Data." Journal of Statistical Software 24(1): 1-11.

AUTHOR_1: Mark S. Handcock
AUTHOR_2: David R. Hunter
AUTHOR_3: Carter T. Butts
AUTHOR_4: Steven M. Goodreau
AUTHOR_5: Martina Morris
YEAR: 2008
TITLE: statnet: Software Tools for the Representation, Visualization, Analysis, and Simulation of Network Data
SOURCE: journal
SOURCE_TITLE: Journal of Statistical Software

SUMMARY: Authors introduce statnet, a package written for R that enables researchers to conduct a variety of analyses of networks with dyadic dependence using ERGMs (exponential random graph models). The basic differences between network data and models and other types of data or modeling, such as linear regression on independent observations, are discussed. An overview of statnet, including brief descriptions of dependent packages also included in the statnet install package is given. Lastly, a concise overview of the principles underlying ERGM-based network modeling helps the novice network modeler to better understand the need for ERGM, potential causes of model degeneracy, and how the ergm package in statnet can help them to diagnose and address these issues through model re-specification.

REVIEWED BY: jrh

LABELS_FULL: 2008, jrh, reviewed, journal, statnet, ergm, R, software, methodology, p*, degeneracy, specification, generative models, overview

2011-03-15

bonaich_1987_journal

CITATION: Bonaich, Phillip. 1987. "Power and Centrality: A Family of Measures." American Journal of Sociology 92(5): 1170-1182.

AUTHOR_1: Phillip Bonaich
YEAR: 1987
TITLE: Power and Centrality: A Family of Measures
SOURCE: Journal
SOURCE_TITLE: American Journal of Sociology

SUMMARYBonaich introduces a family of new measures for quantifying centrality and power, based upon his earlier measure, e. The new measures incorporate a parameter, β, that captures whether an actor’s status in an exchange network is a positive or negative function of the statuses of those to whom she or he is connected. The simpler measure, e, assumes that one’s own status is directly dependent upon the status of those to whom one is connected. The more complex measure ci(α,β) allows for the possibility that the influence of being directly connected to many others could increase one’s status if those others are not themselves well-connected (i.e. when β > 0), but could conversely decrease one’s status if the others are well- or better-connected than the actor (i.e. when β < 0). If β = 0, the measure simplifies to a traditional measure of degree centrality in which only one’s direct ties impact the status of the actor. The new measure is calculated over a range of possible βs for standard empirical datasets presented in Cook et. al 1983, and the results confirm our intuition about the contingency of status upon the precise content or nature of the exchange network relations.

REVIEWED BY: jrh

LABELS_FULL: 1987, jrh, reviewed, journal, centrality, power, status, exchange networks, measurement

2010-12-04

friedkin_1991_journal

CITATION: Friedkin, Noah, E. 1991. "Theoretical Foundations for Centrality Measures." American Journal of Sociology 96(6): 1478-1504.

AUTHOR_1: Noah E. Friedkin
YEAR: 1991
TITLE: Theoretical Foundations for Centrality Measures
SOURCE: Journal
SOURCE_TITLE: American Journal of Sociology

SUMMARY: Develops three new measures of actor network centrality that are analogous to those presented in Freeman, but distinct, and derived from theories of group process. The three measures – Total Effect Centrality (Degree), Immediate Effects Centrality (Closeness), and Mediative Effects Centrality (Betweenness) – are formally described and related to theoretical concepts in group process. The measures are compared using the set of unique 5-node graphs, which reveals that these new measures are complementary, and not overlapping in the dimensions of actor centrality that they measure.
 

REVIEWED BY: JRH

LABELS_FULL: 1991, jrh, reviewed, journal, centrality, measurement, total effect centrality, immediate effects centrality, mediative effects centrality

freeman_1978_journal

CITATION: Freeman, Linton C. 1978. "Centrality in Social Networks: Conceptual Clarification." Social Networks 1: 215-239.

AUTHOR_1: Linton C. Freeman
YEAR: 1978
TITLE: Centrality in Social: Conceptual Clarification
SOURCE: Journal
SOURCE_TITLE: Social Networks

SUMMARY: Discusses the state of the literature surrounding the concept of centrality in social network analysis as it stood in the late 1970s. Presents basic graph theory and terminology, followed by a formal introduction to three different conceptual approaches to measuring centrality: degree centrality, betweenness centrality, and closeness centrality. Each can be calculated in absolute or normalized fashion and a summary index at the graph level exists for each, resulting in nine total measures. The performance of these measures are compared using the 34 unique 5-actor graphs, demonstrating that while the three conceptual approaches to centrality agree at the extremes, they fail to consistently rank the intermediate graphs in the same way. The author suggests that these differences in the relative rankings imply that the three definitions of centrality are theoretically distinct and that researchers should carefully specify the dimension of the centrality concept they wish to study and relate it carefully to the measure.

REVIEWED BY: JRH

LABELS_FULL: 1978, jrh, reviewed, journal, centrality, centralization,  degree centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, review of field

2010-09-15

lin_fu_hsung_2001_chapter

CITATION: Lin, Nan, Yang-chih Fu, and Ray-May Hsung. 2001. "The Position Generator: Measurement Techniques for Investigations of Social Capital." Pp. 57-81 in Social Capital: Theory and Research (Nan Lin, Karen Cook, and Ronald S. Burt, Eds.). Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.

AUTHOR_1: Nan Lin
AUTHOR_2: Yang-chih Fu
AUTHOR_3: Ray-May Hsung
YEAR: 2001
TITLE: The Position Generator: Measurement Techniques for Investigations of Social Capital
SOURCE: Chapter
SOURCE_TITLE: Social Capital: Theory and Research

SUMMARY: Insert Summary Here.

LABELS_FULL: year, reviewer code, reviewed/unreviewed, source (journal, etc.), general keywords, specific keywords, common data sets, common methodologies

lin_1982_chapter

CITATION: Lin, Nan. 1982. "Social Resources and Instrumental Action." Pp. 131-145 in Social Structure and Network Analysis (Peter V. Marsden and Nan Lin, Eds.). Beverly Hills: Sage.

AUTHOR_1: Nan Lin
YEAR: 1982
TITLE: Social Resources and Instrumental Action
SOURCE: Chapter
SOURCE_TITLE: Social Structure and Network Analysis

SUMMARY: Insert Summary Here.

LABELS_FULL: 1982, unreviewed, chapter, positional generators

lin_dumin_1986_journal

CITATION: Lin, Nan, and Mary Dumin. 1986. "Access to Occupations Through Social Ties." Social Networks 8(4): 365-385.

AUTHOR_1: Nan Lin
AUTHOR_2: Mary Dumin
YEAR: 1986
TITLE: Access to Occupations Through Social Ties
SOURCE: Journal
SOURCE_TITLE: Social Networks

SUMMARY: Insert Summary Here.

LABELS_FULL: 1986, unreviewed, journal, positional generators

campbell_lee_1991_journal

CITATION: Campbell, Karen E., and Barrett A. Lee. 1991. "Name Generators in Surveys of Personal Networks." Social Networks 13(3): 203-221.

AUTHOR_1: Karen E. Campbell
AUTHOR_2: Barrett A. Lee
YEAR: 1991
TITLE: Name Generators in Surveys of Personal Networks
SOURCE: Journal
SOURCE_TITLE: Social Networks

SUMMARY: Insert Summary Here.

LABELS_FULL: 1991, unreviewed, journal, single name generator, multiple name generator, data collection

ruan_1998_journal

CITATION: Ruan, Danching. 1998. "The context of the General Social Survey discussion networks: An exploration of General Social Survey discussion name generator in a Chinese context." Social Networks 20(3): 247-264.

AUTHOR_1: Danching Ruan
YEAR: 1998
TITLE: The context of the General Social Survey discussion networks: An exploration of General Social Survey discussion name generator in a Chinese context
SOURCE: Journal
SOURCE_TITLE: Social Networks

SUMMARY: Insert Summary Here

LABELS_FULL: 1998, unreviewed, journal,  single name generator, multiple name generator, methodology, empirical study,

fischer_shavit_1995_journal

CITATION: Fischer, Claude S., and Yossi Shavit. 1995. "National Differences in Network Density: Israel and the United States." Social Networks 17(2): 129-145.

AUTHOR_1: Claude S. Fischer
AUTHOR_2: Yossi Shavit
YEAR: 1995
TITLE: National Differences in Network Density: Israel and the United States
SOURCE: Journal
SOURCE_TITLE: Social Networks

SUMMARY: Insert Summary Here.

LABELS_FULL: 1995, empirical study, journal, multiple name generator, unreviewed, egocentric networks, density

2010-09-14

fischer_1982_journal

CITATION: Fischer, Claude S. 1982. "What do we mean by 'friend'? An inductive study." Social Networks 3(4): 287-306.

AUTHOR_1: Claude S. Fischer
YEAR: 1982
TITLE: What do we mean by "friend"? An inductive study
SOURCE: Journal
SOURCE_TITLE: Social Networks

SUMMARY: Insert Summary Here

LABELS_FULL: 1982, unreviewed, journal, multiple name generator

freeman_webster_1994_journal

CITATION: Freeman, Linton C., and Cynthia M. Webster. 1994. "Interpersonal Proximity in Social and Cognitive Space." Social Cognition 12(3): 223-247.

AUTHOR_1: Linton C. Freeman
AUTHOR_2: Cynthia M. Webster
YEAR: 1994
TITLE: Interpersonal Proximity in Social and Cognitive Space
SOURCE: Journal
SOURCE_TITLE: Social Cognition

SUMMARY: Insert Summary Here

LABELS_FULL: 1994, unreviewed, journal, boundary specification, event-based strategies

seidman_1983_journal

CITATION: Seidman, Stephen B. 1983. "Network Structure and Minimum Degree." Social Networks 5(3): 269-287.

AUTHOR_1: Stephen B. Seidman
YEAR: 1983
TITLE: Network Structure and Minimum Degree
SOURCE: Journal
SOURCE_TITLE: Social Networks

SUMMARY: Insert Summary Here.

LABELS_FULL: 1983, unreviewed, journal, methodology, k-cores, subgroups

doreian_woodard_1992_journal

CITATION: Doreian, Patrick, and Katherine L. Woodard. 1992. "Fixed List Versus Snowball Selection of Social Networks." Social Science Research 21(2): 216-233.

AUTHOR_1: Patrick Doreian
AUTHOR_2: Katherine L. Woodard
YEAR: 1992
TITLE: Fixed List Versus Snowball Selection of Social Networks
SOURCE: Journal
SOURCE_TITLE: Social Science Research

SUMMARY: Insert Summary Here.

LABELS_FULL: 1992, unreviewed, journal, snowball sampling, fixed list selection, expanding selection, methodology, longitudinal analysis

freeman_romney_freeman_1987_journal

CITATION: Freeman, Linton C., A. Kimball Romney, and Sue C. Freeman. 1987. "Cognitive Structure and Informant Accuracy." American Anthropologist 89: 310-325.

AUTHOR_1: Linton C. Freeman
AUTHOR_2: A. Kimball Romney
AUTHOR_3: Sue C. Freeman
YEAR: 1987
TITLE: Cognitive Structure and Informant Accuracy
SOURCE: Journal
SOURCE_TITLE: American Anthropologist

SUMMARY: The authors of this article conducted a number of memory experiments. They then applied five theories about memory from the cognitive sciences to their results and came up with five hypotheses to support their data collection. Finally, the authors surveyed the most productive informants, in what they referred to as a top-down approach. The results indicated that informants’ memory of others is strongly inaccurate; however, over the long term, the patterns indicated by their recollections are more accurate.


This article is a further response to the debate in the literature begun with the publishing of the results of the first of the “BKS” studies, which showed a very poor correspondence between actual behavior (the of various individuals at an event) and respondents’ subsequent reports of who was in attendance. In both the BKS studies and the present study, respondents are consistently found to make both errors of omission (forgetting others who were in attendance) and commission (falsely remembering others who were not in attendance). Far from suggesting that these finding call into question the basic usage of self-reports, the authors here suggest that perfect recall of events should not necessarily be the target of sociological investigations. Rather, an emphasis on the identification of long-term trends and patterns of behavior (stable social structures) offers a more favorable evaluation of existing methods. In order to support this alternative view, the authors integrate five principles of information organization and recall based in cognitive psychology into a coherent theory of respondent recall, and deduce a number of empirical predictions from this theory. All predictions are supported by subsequent data. Specifically, members of the “in-group” falsely recalled far more participants than the “out-group,” but the latter forgot more participants who were actually in attendance. Those who attended less regularly were less likely to be recalled, but also less likely to be falsely recalled. The authors note that the “best” informants and the “worst” informants actually provide two different, but complementary sorts of useful data: The first, owing to their organized cognitive structures built by experience, are the best reporters of stable patterns of social structure, even when they are not asked to report on them. The second, owing to their lack of such a cognitive structure, are more likely to provide accurate data for specific, one-time events, though individually they may also suffer from forgetting.


REVIEWED BY: kad jrh [elaboration]

LABELS_FULL: 1987, kad, jrh, reviewed, journal, cognitive social structures, informant accuracy, data collection,  data quality, BKS studies, recall bias, empirical study, methodology, cognitive psychology

marsden_1990_journal

CITATION: Marsden, Peter V. 1990. "Network Data and Measurement." Annual Review of Sociology 16: 435-463.


AUTHOR_1: Peter V. Marsden
YEAR: 1990
TITLE: Network Data and Measurement
SOURCE: Journal
SOURCE_TITLE: Annual Review of Sociology


SUMMARY: A review and general overview of the state of social network analysis data collection and measurement as of 1990. Provides a solid introduction to basic issues concerning measurement and data collection in social network analysis, especially when paired with Marsden (2005). Covers issues of network study design, including level of analysis, boundary specification, and network sampling. Also covers general sources of social network data, with an emphasis on quality issues for egocentric network data. Examines core issues and contemporary findings concerning informant accuracy and network enumeration. Concludes with an overview of recent developments (circa 1990) in the measurement of key network properties, including size, density, centrality,  range, and tie strength.


REVIEWED BY: jrh


LABELS_FULL: 1990, reviewed, journal, jrh, centrality, tie strength, review, introduction, range, density, size, boundary specification, network sampling, data collection, measurement, informant accuracy

borgatti_molina_2003_journal

CITATION: Borgatti, Stephen P., and Jose-Luis Molina. 2003. "Ethical and Strategic Issues in Organizational Network Analysis." Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 39(3): 337-350.

AUTHOR_1: Stephen P. Borgatti
AUTHOR_2: Jose-Luis Molina
YEAR: 2003
TITLE: Ethical and Strategic Issues in Organizational Network Analysis
SOURCE: Journal
SOURCE_TITLE: Journal of Applied Behavioral Science

SUMMARY: Since social network analysis is rapidly increasing in popularity, the authors worried that new researchers might make it more difficult to continue recruiting subjects and organizations if they do not adhere to strict ethical guidelines for the protection of respondents.  The authors were specifically worried about the ability of sociologists to balance the dual roles of consultant and researcher when studying organizations.  The authors recommended a set of ethical guidelines that should be implemented for social network analysis.

REVIEWED BY: djf jrh [edits]

LABELS_FULL: 2003, djf, jrh, reviewed, journal, research ethics, confidentiality, human subjects protection, organizations, institutional review board, consultation

klovdahl_2005_journal

CITATION: Klovdahl, Alden S. 2005. "Social Network Research and Human Subjects Protection: Towards more Effective Infectious Disease Control." Social Networks 27: 119-137.

AUTHOR_1: Alden S. Klovdahl
YEAR: 2005
TITLE: Social Network Research and Human Subjects Protection: Towards more Effective Infectious Disease Control
SOURCE: journal
SOURCE_TITLE: Social Networks

SUMMARY: Insert Summary Here.

LABELS_FULL: 2005, unreviewed, journal, research ethics, human subjects protection, confidentiality, infectious disease

bogartti_molina_2005_journal

CITATION: Borgatti, Stephen P. and Jose-Luis Molina. 2005. “Toward ethical guidelines for network research in organizations.” Social Networks 27(2): 107-117.


AUTHOR_1: Stephen P. Borgatti
AUTHOR_2: Jose-Luis Molina
YEAR: 2005
TITLE: Toward ethical guidelines for network research in organizations
SOURCE: Journal
SOURCE_TITLE: Social Networks

SUMMARY: The authors continue the work begun in Borgatti and Molina (2003), in which they discuss the various ethical issues that are unique to the collection and analysis of social network data in the context of organizations. In particular, the issue of what data are disclosed to management and how these data or results are subsequently used by management are of major concern to the researcher. First, because the short-term validity of responses is at risk if participants begin to view participation as dangerous in career terms. Second, because the long-term viability of network research is increasingly compromised if researchers cannot obtain the voluntary participation and unbiased cooperation of respondents. As in the 2003 piece, major issues that make Social Network Analysis unique on ethical grounds are discussed. A major conclusion and extension put forward in this article is that research in organizations fundamentally involves three parties, not two: the researcher, each subject, and the organization itself. Therefore, it is suggested that researchers develop separate contracts and forms for both the participants and the organization that explicitly spell out the expectations and the provisions for the protection of individual participants throughout the course of the study. Examples and templates for these forms are provided as appendices.

REVIEWED BY: jrh

LABELS_FULL: 2005, journal, jrh, reviewed, research ethics, confidentiality, organizations, human subjects protection, management disclosure contract, truly informed consent, deductive disclosure, institutional review board

salganik_heckathorn_2004_journal

CITATION: Salganik, Matthew J. and Douglas D. Heckathorn. 2004. "Sampling and Estimation in Hidden Populations Using Respondent-Driven Sampling." Sociological Methodology 34(1): 193-240.

AUTHOR_1: Matthew J. Salganik
AUTHOR_2: Douglas D. Heckathorn
YEAR: 2004
TITLE: Sampling and Estimation in Hidden Populations Using Respondent-Driven Sampling
SOURCE: Journal
SOURCE_TITLE: Sociological Methodology

SUMMARY: Insert Summary Here

LABELS_FULL: 2004, unreviewed, methodology, journal, network sampling, respondent-driven sampling, hidden populations

goodman_1961_journal

CITATION: Goodman, Leo A. 1961. "Snowball Sampling." The Annals of Mathematical Statistics 32(1): 148-170.

AUTHOR_1: Leo A. Goodman
YEAR: 1961
TITLE: Snowball Sampling
SOURCE: Journal
SOURCE_TITLE: Annals of Mathematical Statistics

SUMMARY: Insert Summary Here.

LABELS_FULL: year, reviewer code, reviewed/unreviewed, source (journal, etc.), general keywords, specific keywords, common data sets, common methodologies, hidden populations

heckathorn_2002_journal

CITATION: Heckathorn, Douglas D. 2002. "Respondent-Driven Sampling II: Deriving Valid Population Estimates from Chain-Referral Samples of Hidden Populations." Social Problems 49(1): 11-34.

AUTHOR_1: Douglas D. Heckathorn
YEAR: 2002
TITLE: Respondent-Driven Sampling II: Deriving Valid Population Estimates from Chain-Referral Samples of Hidden Populations
SOURCE: Journal
SOURCE_TITLE: Social Problems

SUMMARY: Insert Summary Here.

LABELS_FULL: 2002, unreviewed, journal, methodology, boundary specification, network sampling, respondent-driven sampling, hidden populations

heckathorne_1997_journal

CITATION: Heckathorn, Douglas D. 1997. "Respondent-Driven Sampling: A New Approach to the Study of Hidden Populations." Social Problems 44: 174-199.

AUTHOR_1: Douglas D. Heckathorn
YEAR: 1997
TITLE: Respondent-Driven Sampling: A New Approach to the Study of Hidden Populations
SOURCE: Journal
SOURCE_TITLE: Social Problems

SUMMARY: Insert Summary Here.

LABELS_FULL: 1997, unreviewed, journal, methodology, network sampling, respondent-driven sampling, sample weighting, hidden populations

morrisey_tausig_lindsey_1985_book

CITATION: Morrisey, J.P., M. Tausig, and M. Lindsey. 1985. Network analytic methods for mental health service system research: A comparison of two community support systems (No. 6). Washington D.C.: National Institutes of Health Series BN.

AUTHOR_1: J.P. Morrisey
AUTHOR_2: M. Tausig
AUTHOR_3: M. Lindsey
YEAR: 1985
TITLE: Network analytic methods for mental health service system research: A comparison of two community support systems
SOURCE: Book
SOURCE_TITLE: Network analytic methods for mental health service system research: A comparison of two community support systems

SUMMARY: Insert Summary Here.

LABELS_FULL: 1985, unreviewed, book, boundary specification,  relational approach, reputational method, empirical study

galaskiewicz_1979_journal

CITATION: Galaskiewicz, Joseph. 1979. "The Structure of Community Organizational Networks." Social Forces 57(4): 1346-1364.

AUTHOR_1: Joseph Galaskiewicz
YEAR: 1979
TITLE: The Structure of Community Organizational Networks
SOURCE: Journal
SOURCE_TITLE: Social Forces

SUMMARY: Insert Summary Here.

LABELS_FULL: 1979, unreviewed, journal, empirical study, boundary specification, positional strategy, research design issues

feldmansavelsberg_ndonko_yang_2005_chapter

CITATION: Feldman-Savelsberg, Pamela, Flavien T. Ndonko, and Song Yang. 2005. "How Rumor Begets Rumor: Collective Memory, Ethnic Conflict, and Reproductive Rumors in Cameroon." Pp. 141-159 in Rumor mills: The social impact of rumor and legend (Gary Alan Fine, Veronique Campion-Vincent, and Chip Heath, Eds.). New York: Transaction Press.

AUTHOR_1: Pamela Feldman-Savelsberg
AUTHOR_2: Flavien T. Ndonko
AUTHOR_3: Song Yang
YEAR: 2005
TITLE: How Rumor Begets Rumor: Collective Memory, Ethnic Conflict, and Reproductive Rumors in Cameroon
SOURCE: chapter
SOURCE_TITLE: Rumor mills: The social impact of rumor and legend

SUMMARY: Insert Summary Here

LABELS_FULL: 2005, unreviewed, chapter, boundary specification, positional strategy, empirical study

knoke_2001_book

CITATION: Knoke, David. 2001. Changing Organizations: Business Networks in the New Political Economy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

AUTHOR_1: David Knoke
YEAR: 2001
TITLE: Changing Organizations: Business Networks in the New Political Economy
SOURCE: book
SOURCE_TITLE: Changing Organizations: Business Networks in the New Political Economy

SUMMARY: Insert Summary Here.

LABELS_FULL: 2001, unreviewed, book, empirical study, boundary specification, positional strategy, strategic alliances

useem_1979_journal

CITATION: Useem, M. 1979. "The social organization of the American business elite and participation of corporation directors in the governance of American Institutions." American Sociological Review 44: 553-572.

AUTHOR_1: Useem, Michael
YEAR: 1979
TITLE: The social organization of the American business elite and participation of corporation directors in the governance of American institutions
SOURCE: Journal
SOURCE_TITLE: American Sociological Review

SUMMARY: Insert Summary Here.

LABELS_FULL: 1979, unreviewed, journal, empirical study, boundary specification, positional strategies

laumann_marsden_prensky_1983_chapter

CITATION: Laumann, Edward O., Peter V. Marsden, and David Prensky. 1983. "The boundary-specification problem in network analysis." Pp. 18-34 in Applied Network Analysis (R. Burt and M. Minor, eds.). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

AUTHOR_1: Edward O. Laumann
AUTHOR_2: Peter V. Marsden
AUTHOR_3: David Prensky
YEAR: 1983
TITLE: the boundary-specification problem in network analysis
SOURCE: chapter
SOURCE_TITLE: Applied Network Analysis

SUMMARY: Insert Summary Here.

LABELS_FULL: 1983, unreviewed, chapter, boundary specification, data collection, methodology

2010-09-13

watts_2004_journal

CITATION: Watts, Duncan J. 2004. "The 'New' Science of Networks." Annual Review of Sociology 30: 243-270.

AUTHOR_1: Duncan J. Watts
YEAR: 2004
TITLE: The New Science of Networks
SOURCE: Journal
SOURCE_TITLE: Annual Review of Sociology

SUMMARY: The author introduces and defines the “new” science of networks, in terms of its theoretical differences with the existing tradition of social network studies in sociology, and through the use of a number of examples. The new science of networks focuses on the development of simple parametric models that are able to replicate the properties of empirical networks, social and otherwise. Small-world networks are defined and discussed. The Watts-Strogatz model, Generalized Small-World Networks, Generalized Affiliation Networks, BA models, and SIR models are described, including their parameterization, and major findings concerning each are briefly discussed. The concept of scale-free networks is introduced and tied to the development of generalized models of network structure, and the properties of these networks are listed. Methodological and theoretical challenges for the study of empirical small-world networks are enumerated. Three elementary applications of the new science of networks are detailed: 1.) the introduction of network models to the study of the spread of disease, 2.) the study of social contagion, and 3.) the study of network robustness. The author concludes by reflecting on the need for sociologists to remain active in the increasingly computational field of new network science.

REVIEWER: jrh

LABELS_FULL: 2004, journal, review of field, reviewed, jrh, new science of networks, Watts-Strogatz model, BA model, generalized small-world networks, BA model, SIR model, scale-free network, small-world network, network robustness, social contagion

wellman_1988_chapter

CITATION: Wellman, Barry. 1988. "Structural analysis: from method and metaphor to theory and substance." Pp. 19-61 in Social Structures: A Network Approach (Barry Wellman and S.D. Berkowitz, eds.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

AUTHOR_1: Barry Wellman
YEAR: 1988
TITLE: Structural analysis: from method and metaphor to theory and substance
SOURCE: Chapter
SOURCE_TITLE: Social Structures: A Network Approach

SUMMARY:  This chapter appraises both the theoretical and methodological contributions of structural analysis to sociology, and will most likely be best understood by a sociological audience. The piece begins by enumerating the many misconceptions that exist about what structural analysis (and social network analysis) is and what it can do. This general misunderstanding of structural analysis is juxtaposed against a unified set of five paradigmatic characteristics of the field as of the late 1980s. These include 1.) the focus on interpreting behavior as constrained by and better explained social structure, not as emerging solely from individual attributes 2.) likewise, a focus on analyzing relations themselves, not individual, atomistic actors, 3.) a preoccupation with the ways in which behavior is affected by the joint interaction of multiple relations acting simultaneously, rather than one at a time, 4.) the emphasis on networks over groups and the idea of social structure as a network of networks, and 5.) a set of methods designed to deal directly with the relational nature of social structure that can supplement, or entirely replace, existing models premised on methodological individualism. Each of these elements is developed fully and identified in relation to the specific research and thought upon which it is based. Far from being a simple set of tools or a hodge-podge of observations, the author demonstrates that structural analysis based upon the study of social networks has emerged as an organized and compelling adjunct or alternative to more conventional methods of analyzing a wide array of social phenomena.

REVIEWED BY: jrh

LABELS_FULL: 1988, chapter, history, reviewed, jrh, overview, review of field, theory, structural analysis

marsden_2005_chapter

CITATION: Marsden, Peter V. 2005. "Network Analysis." Pp. 819-825 in The Encyclopedia of Social Measurement, Vol. 2 (Kimberly Kempf-Leonard, ed.). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

AUTHOR_1: Peter V. Marsden
YEAR: 2005
TITLE: Network Analysis
SOURCE: Chapter
SOURCE_TITLE: Encyclopedia of Social Measurement

SUMMARY: A concise, general overview of the state of social network analysis, with specific attention paid to the measurement and basic utility of social networks and social network analysis. There is a glossary of selected common terms in network analysis at the outset.

The section on social network data and research designs suggests two dimensions for classifying network data: 1.) whole or partial network data (as opposed to the end-use of performing egocentric, dyadic, complete, etc. network analyses), and 2.) one- two- or multi-mode network data.

The section on graph theory and connectedness explains the fundamental distinction between nondirected graphs and directed graphs (digraphs), as well as the relationship between the adjacency matrix and its isomorphically related digraph. The section also solidifies the usage and relevance of key concepts like path, geodesic distance, symmetry, nodes, and edges. Bipartite graphs are defined and explained.

The section on visualization lays out basic possibilities for the graphic display of network data, including sociograms, three-dimensional plots, multidimensional scaling, and the use of spring embedding and other algorithms for standardized graph presentation. The utility of correspondence analysis for visualizing affiliation network data is noted.

The section on centrality and centralization introduces several basic measures of centrality (degree, betweenness, closeness, and prominence) and one of centralization (normalized degree centralization), and explains their relevance to social network analysis.

The section on range and composition is framed in terms of the significance of these two concepts for the measurement of social capital. Measures of each concept are listed, but not presented formally, as was done for simple measures of centrality and centralization.

The section on social differentiation and network subgroups introduces two approaches to the assignation of actors to subgroups: cohesive subgroups including cliques, and positional analysis, including structural equivalence and blockmodeling. Each of these approaches is described in brief, laying out their utility for the study of various aspects of social structure.

The chapter concludes with a section on statistical network analysis, with special attention paid to the p* family of random graph models, along with a consideration of some of the underlying assumptions of such models compared to other models of network structure.

REVIEWED BY: jrh

LABELS_FULL: reviewed, jrh, 2005, chapter, introduction, overview, history, theory, methodology, data structure, graph theory, connectivity, visualization, centrality, centralization, range, composition, social capital, subgroups, cohesive subgroups, structural equivalence, blockmodels, p* model

READ ME - INSTRUCTIONS ON FORMATTING

Below, you will find notes and descriptions for how to annotate a work for inclusion here.

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Title (above): 

author_year_source


author: The "author" in the title box should consist of the last names of up to three authors, lowercase, with no special hyphenation or characters, etc. For more than three authors, use the first author's last name, followed by _et_al_ and then the year, etc.
Example 1: smith_1984_journal
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Example 3: butterworth_et_al_2001_working
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Example 1: tut_1954_journal and tut_1954b_journal
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CITATION: ASA-style citation, with full names of authors (no initials), if possible


AUTHOR_1: First Middle Last (please make an effort to find the full name of each author)
AUTHOR_2: as needed
AUTHOR_3: as needed, etc.
YEAR: ex: 2010
TITLE: Title of Work
SOURCE: Book, Chapter, Journal Article, Web Resource, Working Paper, Other
SOURCE_TITLE: title of journal, title of book, general website title, collection title, etc.

SUMMARY: An unrestricted format summary of the major arguments, contributions, and strengths/weaknesses of the work. This section can be written as you like, but should be as concise as possible while still providing a working understanding of the basic message. Consult with examples for further clarification.

REVIEWER: Three letter code for reviewer. Can be initials, or a random collection of letters, but once you pick an (unused) set of 3 letters, please continue to use it. If major additions or revisions are made to an initial review, please add the second set with the nature of the changes in [BRACKETS] - e.g. JRH [de-mystified].

LABELS_FULL: A complete listing of all relevant labels, ALL LOWER CASE. I shall repeat: all labels should be lowercase. Labels can be more than one word, as required, and should be separated by commas. This list should then be condensed, if necessary, and re-entered, one label at a time, into the "labels" box below. PLEASE DO NOT COPY AND PASTE, as this will remove the auto-fill in capability, which helps to correct for misspellings and case-sensitivity. When entering labels in the box below the following labels should always be included as needed. You can then fill in as many of the most important substantive labels as the character limits will allow:

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reviewer code: 3-letter code 
year: 1999, 2003, etc.
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